Editorial Policies

Focus and Scope

The International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST) is a peer-reviewed scholarly online journal. The IJonEST is published quarterly in Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall. After the double blind-review, the accepted papers are published in the IJonEST

The IJonEST welcomes any research papers on engineering, science and technology using techniques from and applications in any technical knowledge domain: original theoretical works, literature reviews, research reports, social issues, psychological issues, curricula, learning environments, book reviews, and review articles. The articles should be original, unpublished, and not in consideration for publication elsewhere at the time of submission to the IJonEST.


Section Policies


Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed


Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed


Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Peer Review Process

The articles should be original, unpublished, and not in consideration for publication elsewhere at the time of submission to the International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST) and during the review process.

The IJonEST is a refereed journal and has a double-blind review. Any manuscript submitted for consideration in publication in the IJonEST is reviewed by at least two international reviewers with expertise in the relevant subject area. After the double blind-review, the accepted conference full papers are published in the IJonEST.


Publication Frequency

The International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST) is a peer-reviewed scholarly online journal. The IJonEST is quarterly in Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall.


Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.



This journal utilizes the LOCKSS system to create a distributed archiving system among participating libraries and permits those libraries to create permanent archives of the journal for purposes of preservation and restoration. More...


Editorial Board

Arturo Tobias Calizon, University of Perpetual Help System Dalta, Philippines
Chandra Pratama Syaima, University of Lampung, Indonesia
Chris Plyley, University of the Virgin Islands, Virgin Islands
Claudiu Mereuta, Dunarea De Jos University of Galati, Romania
Dana Aizenkot, Ashkelon Academic College, Israel
Daniela Bitencourt Santos , Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
Draga Vidakovic, Georgia State University, United States
El Takach Suzanne, Lebanese University, Lebanon
Farouk Bouhadiba, University of Oran 2, Algeria
Gulbakhram Kulnazarova, Head of the “TIL” (Turkic Education) Center, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Hou-Chang Chiu, Fu-Jen Catholic University Hospital, Taiwan
Irena Markovska, Assen Zlatarov University, Bulgaria
Ivan Serbetar, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Iwona Bodys-Cupak, Jagiellonian University, Poland
Jaya Bishnu Pradhan, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
Jean-Yves Gantois, ICHEC, Belgium
Kassa Mickael, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
Kemmanat Mingsiritham, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, Thailand
Kristyna Balatova, University of Zilina, Slovakia
Margarida Rodrigues, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Marija Kuzmanovic, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Martin Braund, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa
Natela Doghonadze , International Black Sea University, Georgia
Neide Da Fonseca Parracho Sant'anna, Colegio Pedro II, Brazil
Ossi Autio, Univertsity of Helsinki, Finland
Patricia Moyer-Packenham, Utah State University, United States
Philomina Ifeanyi Onwuka, Delta State University, Nigeria
Shenglei Pi, Guangzhou University, China
Siew Nyet Moi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
Sindorela Doli Kryeziu, University of Gjakova, Albania
Theodore Chadjipadelis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Volodymyr Sulyma, Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy, Ukraine


Journal Content

The IJonEST covers the variety of topics relevant to Engineering, Science and Technology:

  • Acoustics
  • Agricultural Economics & Policy
  • Agricultural Engineering
  • Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science
  • Agriculture, Multidisciplinary
  • Agronomy
  • Allergy
  • Anatomy & Morphology
  • Andrology
  • Anesthesiology
  • Astronomy & Astrophysics
  • Audiology & Speech-Language Pathology
  • Automation & Control Systems
  • Behavioral Sciences
  • Biochemical Research Methods
  • Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
  • Biodiversity Conservation
  • Biology
  • Biophysics
  • Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology
  • Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems
  • Cell Biology
  • Cell & Tissue Engineering
  • Chemistry, Analytical
  • Chemistry, Applied
  • Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear
  • Chemistry, Medicinal
  • Chemistry, Multidisciplinary
  • Chemistry, Organic
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Science, Cybernetics
  • Computer Science, Hardware & Architecture
  • Computer Science, Information Systems
  • Computer Science, Interdisciplinary Applications
  • Computer Science, Software Engineering
  • Computer Science, Theory & Methods
  • Construction & Building Technology
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Crystallography
  • Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine
  • Dermatology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Electrochemistry
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Endocrinology & Metabolism
  • Energy & Fuels
  • Engineering, Aerospace
  • Engineering, Biomedical
  • Engineering, Chemical
  • Engineering, Civil
  • Engineering, Electrical & Electronic
  • Engineering, Environmental
  • Engineering, Geological
  • Engineering, Industrial
  • Engineering, Manufacturing
  • Engineering, Marine
  • Engineering, Mechanical
  • Engineering, Multidisciplinary
  • Engineering, Ocean
  • Engineering, Petroleum
  • Entomology
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Fisheries
  • Food Science & Technology
  • Forestry
  • Gastroenterology & Hepatology
  • Genetics & Heredity
  • Geochemistry & Geophysics
  • Geography, Physical
  • Geology
  • Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
  • Geriatrics & Gerontology
  • Health Care Sciences & Services
  • Hematology
  • History & Philosophy of Science
  • Horticulture
  • Imaging Science & Photographic Technology
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Instruments & Instrumentation
  • Integrative & Complementary Medicine
  • Limnology
  • Logic
  • Marine & Freshwater Biology
  • Materials Science, Biomaterials
  • Materials Science, Ceramics
  • Materials Science, Characterization & Testing
  • Materials Science, Coatings & Films
  • Materials Science, Composites
  • Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
  • Materials Science, Paper & Wood
  • Materials Science, Textiles
  • Mathematical & Computational Biology
  • Mathematics
  • Mathematics, Applied
  • Mathematics, Interdisciplinary Applications
  • Mechanics
  • Medical Ethics
  • Medical Informatics
  • Medical Laboratory Technology
  • Medicine, General & Internal
  • Medicine, Legal
  • Medicine, Research & Experimental
  • Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering
  • Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
  • Microbiology
  • Microscopy
  • Mineralogy
  • Mining & Mineral Processing
  • Multidisciplinary Sciences
  • Mycology
  • Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
  • Neuroimaging
  • Neurosciences
  • Nuclear Science & Technology
  • Nursing
  • Nutrition & Dietetics
  • Obstetrics & Gynecology
  • Oceanography
  • Oncology
  • Operations Research & Management Science
  • Ophthalmology
  • Optics
  • Ornithology
  • Orthopedics
  • Paleontology
  • Parasitology
  • Pathology
  • Pediatrics
  • Peripheral Vascular Disease
  • Pharmacology & Pharmacy
  • Physics, Applied
  • Physics, Atomic, Molecular & Chemical
  • Physics, Condensed Matter
  • Physics, Fluids & Plasmas
  • Physics, Mathematical
  • Physics, Multidisciplinary
  • Physics, Nuclear
  • Physics, Particles & Fields
  • Physiology
  • Plant Sciences
  • Polymer Science
  • Primary Health Care
  • Psychiatry
  • Psychology
  • Public, Environmental & Occupational Health
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging
  • Rehabilitation
  • Remote Sensing
  • Reproductive Biology
  • Respiratory System
  • Rheumatology
  • Robotics
  • Soil Science
  • Spectroscopy
  • Sport Sciences
  • Statistics & Probability
  • Substance Abuse
  • Surgery
  • Telecommunications
  • Thermodynamics
  • Toxicology
  • Transplantation
  • Transportation Science & Technology
  • Tropical Medicine
  • Urology & Nephrology
  • Veterinary Sciences
  • Virology
  • Water Resources
  • Zoology
  • Engineering, Science and Technology related topics


Indexes & Databases


Index Copernicus

Google Scholar


Crossref DOI


Plagiarism Policy

Plagiarism is the unethical act of copying someone else’s prior ideas, processes, results or words without explicit acknowledgement of the original author and source. Self-plagiarism occurs when an author utilizes large part of his/her own previously published work without using appropriate references. This can range from getting the same manuscript published in multiple journals to modifying a previously published manuscript with some new data.



Copyright Policy

Articles may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Authors alone are responsible for the contents of their articles. The journal owns the copyright of the articles. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of the research material.

The author(s) of a manuscript agree that if the manuscript is accepted for publication in the International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST), the published article will be copyrighted using a Creative Commons “Attribution 4.0 International” license. This license allows others to freely copy, distribute, and display the copyrighted work, and derivative works based upon it, under certain specified conditions.

Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission to include any images or artwork for which they do not hold copyright in their articles, or to adapt any such images or artwork for inclusion in their articles. The copyright holder must be made explicitly aware that the image(s) or artwork will be made freely available online as part of the article under a Creative Commons “Attribution 4.0 International” license.


Repository Policy

The authors may deposit a copy of the different versions of their paper in an institutional or other repository of their choice:

- Submitted version

- Accepted version (Author Accepted Manuscript)

- Published version (Version of Record)

The journal allows all versions to be deposited in an institutional or other repository of the author’s choice without embargo.


Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

The International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST)’s Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement is based, in large part, on the guidelines and standards developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The relevant duties and expectations of authors, reviewers, and editors of the journal are set out below.

Editorial Board members, reviewers, and authors are expected to have verifiable, recent publication and citation history in the discipline of the journal.


Responsibilities of Authors


By submitting a manuscript to International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST), the author(s) warrant that the manuscript is their own, original work and that it has neither been published previously nor is currently being considered for publication elsewhere. They also warrant that the sources of any ideas and/or words in the manuscript that are not their own have been properly attributed through appropriate citations and/or quotes.


An author should not normally publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in multiple journals or publication venues. Such redundant publication is generally considered to constitute unethical publishing behavior, and if discovered may result in a manuscript under consideration being rejected, or a published article being retracted.


Authors of manuscripts reporting on original research should present an accurate account of the work performed, accompanied by an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. The manuscript should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. The fabrication of results and the making of fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and may be cause for rejection or retraction of a manuscript or published article.


Where the manuscript reports on commercial software, hardware, or other products, authors must include a declaration at the beginning of the manuscript in which they must either state that no conflict of interest exists or describe the nature of any potential conflict. All sources of financial support for the research should also be disclosed in the manuscript.


The author(s) of a manuscript agree that if the manuscript is accepted for publication in International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST), the published article will be copyrighted using a Creative Commons “Attribution 4.0 International” license. This license allows others to freely copy, distribute, and display the copyrighted work, and derivative works based upon it, under certain specified conditions.


Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission to include any images or artwork for which they do not hold copyright in their articles, or to adapt any such images or artwork for inclusion in their articles. The copyright holder must be made explicitly aware that the image(s) or artwork will be made freely available online as part of the article under a Creative Commons “Attribution 4.0 International” license.


The authors’ names should be listed on the article in order of their contribution to the article, and all authors take responsibility for their own contributions. Only those individuals who have made a substantive contribution should be listed as authors; those whose contributions are indirect or marginal (e.g., colleagues or supervisors who have reviewed drafts of the work or provided proofreading assistance, and heads of research institutes/centers/labs) should be named in an “Acknowledgments” section at the end of the article, immediately preceding the Reference List. The corresponding author must ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the article, and that all listed co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the article and agreed to its publication.


Where an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in an article of his/hers that has been published in International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST), he/she has an obligation to promptly notify the editors and cooperate with them to correct the article or retract it as appropriate.


Responsibilities of Reviewers


International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST)'s reviewers perform work for the journal on a volunteer basis. Given that most of these individuals are in full-time employment, their reviewing activities for International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST) must, by necessity, not be their top priority. Reviewers are free to decline invitations to review particular manuscripts at their discretion, for example, if their current employment workload and/or other commitments make it prohibitive for them to complete a review in a timely fashion and to do justice to the task in the available time frame. They should also not accept manuscript review assignments for which they feel unqualified.


Reviewers who have accepted manuscript assignments are normally expected to submit their reviews within one month. They should recuse themselves from the assignment if it becomes apparent to them at any stage that they do not possess the required expertise to perform the review, or that they may have a potential conflict of interest in performing the review (e.g., one resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, institutions, or companies associated with the manuscript).


Privileged information or ideas obtained by reviewers through the peer review process must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents, and must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST) Editor.


When conducting their reviews, reviewers are asked to do so as objectively as possible, refraining from engaging in personal criticism of the author(s). They are encouraged to express their views clearly, explaining and justifying all recommendations made. They should always attempt to provide detailed and constructive feedback to assist the author(s) in improving their work, even if the manuscript is, in their opinion, not publishable.


Reviewers should identify in their reviews relevant published work that has not been cited by the author(s), together with any instances in which proper attribution of sources has not been provided. They should call to the responsible editor’s attention any major resemblances between a manuscript under consideration and other published articles or papers of which they are aware, as well as any concerns they might have in relation to the ethical acceptability of the research reported in the manuscript.


Responsibilities of Editors


The International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST) has ultimate responsibility for deciding if a manuscript submitted to International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST) should be published, and in doing so is guided by the journal’s policies as determined by the International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST) editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The Editor may consult with the Associate Editor and other members of the editorial team, as well as with reviewers, in making publication decisions.


The editors will evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to the race, color, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). They will not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST) editorial board members, as appropriate. Additionally, the editors will make every effort to ensure the integrity of the blind review process by not revealing the identity of the author(s) of a manuscript to the reviewers of that manuscript, and vice versa.


When evaluating a manuscript for publication, in addition to considering standard criteria pertaining to the rigor of the manuscript, the quality of its presentation, and its contribution to humanity’s stock of knowledge, the editors will also seek evidence that ethical harms have been minimized in the conduct of the reported research. They will question whether the benefits outweigh the harms in the particular study’s case. Since International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST) welcomes the submission of manuscripts from any country, it is necessary to recognize that laws and regulations regarding research ethics and ethical approval vary worldwide. As such, the editors may need to seek clarification in this regard with the author(s) and request that they supply a letter from the relevant institutional ethics committee or board that approved the research.


The editors will be guided by CORE’s Guidelines for Retracting Articles when considering retracting, issuing an expression of concern about, and issuing corrections pertaining to articles that have been published in International Journal on Engineering, Science and Technology (IJonEST). They are committed to working closely with research organizations and institutions in line with CORE’s advice on Cooperation between Research Institutions and Journals on Research Integrity Cases.



Ethical Oversight

In educational sciences, as well as in others fields such as medicine, researchers must comply with some ethical rules while using human subjects, working on vulnerable populations or handling confidential data. The journal adheres to “Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research” published by the British Educational Research Association (BERA). We encourage authors who will submit their manuscript to the journal adopt these ethical guidelines and apply them in their research process.

Although the BERA guidelines do not require human-subjects research to receive IRB approval, the journal requires it. Also, the journal requires informed consent by research subjects. Please state this information in the Submission box while submitting your paper and upload the related documents as supplementary files during the submission steps.

Subject Consent

The journal follows the guidelines for authors/researchers specifying how they should declare the consent of publication from the participants in the studies. Appropriate consents must be obtained by the authors to include the participants’ personal information or data in the publication and meet all requirements of the laws and regulations concerning the privacy and security of personal information.

It is the responsibility of the authors/researchers to ensure that:

  • Participants or their legal guardian to act on the individual's behalf who appears in any picture, video, or in any other identifiable form must give their written consents. They should be informed about all conditions that their data can be used. All written consents retained by the authors must be provided to the publisher on request.
  • Any data for which the written consents are not received should not be used in the publication.
  • The written consents should fulfill all requirements of Data Protection and Privacy Laws.
  • Personal information such as name, address, date of birth should not be used in the publication so any identifying details should be omitted in the publication if they are not crucial to report.


WMA Declaration of Helsinki – Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects



1. The World Medical Association (WMA) has developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, including research on identifiable human material and data.

The Declaration is intended to be read as a whole and each of its constituent paragraphs should be applied with consideration of all other relevant paragraphs.

2. Consistent with the mandate of the WMA, the Declaration is addressed primarily to physicians. The WMA encourages others who are involved in medical research involving human subjects to adopt these principles.

General Principles

3. The Declaration of Geneva of the WMA binds the physician with the words, “The health of my patient will be my first consideration,” and the International Code of Medical Ethics declares that, “A physician shall act in the patient’s best interest when providing medical care.”

4. It is the duty of the physician to promote and safeguard the health, well-being and rights of patients, including those who are involved in medical research. The physician’s knowledge and conscience are dedicated to the fulfilment of this duty.

5. Medical progress is based on research that ultimately must include studies involving human subjects.

6. The primary purpose of medical research involving human subjects is to understand the causes, development and effects of diseases and improve preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions (methods, procedures and treatments). Even the best proven interventions must be evaluated continually through research for their safety, effectiveness, efficiency, accessibility and quality.

7. Medical research is subject to ethical standards that promote and ensure respect for all human subjects and protect their health and rights.

8. While the primary purpose of medical research is to generate new knowledge, this goal can never take precedence over the rights and interests of individual research subjects.

9. It is the duty of physicians who are involved in medical research to protect the life, health, dignity, integrity, right to self-determination, privacy, and confidentiality of personal information of research subjects. The responsibility for the protection of research subjects must always rest with the physician or other health care professionals and never with the research subjects, even though they have given consent.

10. Physicians must consider the ethical, legal and regulatory norms and standards for research involving human subjects in their own countries as well as applicable international norms and standards. No national or international ethical, legal or regulatory requirement should reduce or eliminate any of the protections for research subjects set forth in this Declaration.

11. Medical research should be conducted in a manner that minimises possible harm to the environment.

12. Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted only by individuals with the appropriate ethics and scientific education, training and qualifications. Research on patients or healthy volunteers requires the supervision of a competent and appropriately qualified physician or other health care professional.

13. Groups that are underrepresented in medical research should be provided appropriate access to participation in research.

14. Physicians who combine medical research with medical care should involve their patients in research only to the extent that this is justified by its potential preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic value and if the physician has good reason to believe that participation in the research study will not adversely affect the health of the patients who serve as research subjects.

15. Appropriate compensation and treatment for subjects who are harmed as a result of participating in research must be ensured.

Risks, Burdens and Benefits

16. In medical practice and in medical research, most interventions involve risks and burdens.

Medical research involving human subjects may only be conducted if the importance of the objective outweighs the risks and burdens to the research subjects.

17. All medical research involving human subjects must be preceded by careful assessment of predictable risks and burdens to the individuals and groups involved in the research in comparison with foreseeable benefits to them and to other individuals or groups affected by the condition under investigation.

Measures to minimise the risks must be implemented. The risks must be continuously monitored, assessed and documented by the researcher.

18. Physicians may not be involved in a research study involving human subjects unless they are confident that the risks have been adequately assessed and can be satisfactorily managed.

When the risks are found to outweigh the potential benefits or when there is conclusive proof of definitive outcomes, physicians must assess whether to continue, modify or immediately stop the study.

Vulnerable Groups and Individuals

19. Some groups and individuals are particularly vulnerable and may have an increased likelihood of being wronged or of incurring additional harm.

All vulnerable groups and individuals should receive specifically considered protection.

20. Medical research with a vulnerable group is only justified if the research is responsive to the health needs or priorities of this group and the research cannot be carried out in a non-vulnerable group. In addition, this group should stand to benefit from the knowledge, practices or interventions that result from the research.

Scientific Requirements and Research Protocols

21. Medical research involving human subjects must conform to generally accepted scientific principles, be based on a thorough knowledge of the scientific literature, other relevant sources of information, and adequate laboratory and, as appropriate, animal experimentation. The welfare of animals used for research must be respected.

22. The design and performance of each research study involving human subjects must be clearly described and justified in a research protocol.

The protocol should contain a statement of the ethical considerations involved and should indicate how the principles in this Declaration have been addressed. The protocol should include information regarding funding, sponsors, institutional affiliations, potential conflicts of interest, incentives for subjects and information regarding provisions for treating and/or compensating subjects who are harmed as a consequence of participation in the research study.

In clinical trials, the protocol must also describe appropriate arrangements for post-trial provisions.

Research Ethics Committees

23. The research protocol must be submitted for consideration, comment, guidance and approval to the concerned research ethics committee before the study begins. This committee must be transparent in its functioning, must be independent of the researcher, the sponsor and any other undue influence and must be duly qualified. It must take into consideration the laws and regulations of the country or countries in which the research is to be performed as well as applicable international norms and standards but these must not be allowed to reduce or eliminate any of the protections for research subjects set forth in this Declaration.

The committee must have the right to monitor ongoing studies. The researcher must provide monitoring information to the committee, especially information about any serious adverse events. No amendment to the protocol may be made without consideration and approval by the committee. After the end of the study, the researchers must submit a final report to the committee containing a summary of the study’s findings and conclusions.

Privacy and Confidentiality

24. Every precaution must be taken to protect the privacy of research subjects and the confidentiality of their personal information.

Informed Consent

25. Participation by individuals capable of giving informed consent as subjects in medical research must be voluntary. Although it may be appropriate to consult family members or community leaders, no individual capable of giving informed consent may be enrolled in a research study unless he or she freely agrees.

26. In medical research involving human subjects capable of giving informed consent, each potential subject must be adequately informed of the aims, methods, sources of funding, any possible conflicts of interest, institutional affiliations of the researcher, the anticipated benefits and potential risks of the study and the discomfort it may entail, post-study provisions and any other relevant aspects of the study. The potential subject must be informed of the right to refuse to participate in the study or to withdraw consent to participate at any time without reprisal. Special attention should be given to the specific information needs of individual potential subjects as well as to the methods used to deliver the information.

After ensuring that the potential subject has understood the information, the physician or another appropriately qualified individual must then seek the potential subject’s freely-given informed consent, preferably in writing. If the consent cannot be expressed in writing, the non-written consent must be formally documented and witnessed.

All medical research subjects should be given the option of being informed about the general outcome and results of the study.

27. When seeking informed consent for participation in a research study the physician must be particularly cautious if the potential subject is in a dependent relationship with the physician or may consent under duress. In such situations the informed consent must be sought by an appropriately qualified individual who is completely independent of this relationship.

28. For a potential research subject who is incapable of giving informed consent, the physician must seek informed consent from the legally authorised representative. These individuals must not be included in a research study that has no likelihood of benefit for them unless it is intended to promote the health of the group represented by the potential subject, the research cannot instead be performed with persons capable of providing informed consent, and the research entails only minimal risk and minimal burden.

29. When a potential research subject who is deemed incapable of giving informed consent is able to give assent to decisions about participation in research, the physician must seek that assent in addition to the consent of the legally authorised representative. The potential subject’s dissent should be respected.

30. Research involving subjects who are physically or mentally incapable of giving consent, for example, unconscious patients, may be done only if the physical or mental condition that prevents giving informed consent is a necessary characteristic of the research group. In such circumstances the physician must seek informed consent from the legally authorised representative. If no such representative is available and if the research cannot be delayed, the study may proceed without informed consent provided that the specific reasons for involving subjects with a condition that renders them unable to give informed consent have been stated in the research protocol and the study has been approved by a research ethics committee. Consent to remain in the research must be obtained as soon as possible from the subject or a legally authorised representative.

31. The physician must fully inform the patient which aspects of their care are related to the research. The refusal of a patient to participate in a study or the patient’s decision to withdraw from the study must never adversely affect the patient-physician relationship.

32. For medical research using identifiable human material or data, such as research on material or data contained in biobanks or similar repositories, physicians must seek informed consent for its collection, storage and/or reuse. There may be exceptional situations where consent would be impossible or impracticable to obtain for such research. In such situations the research may be done only after consideration and approval of a research ethics committee.

Use of Placebo

33. The benefits, risks, burdens and effectiveness of a new intervention must be tested against those of the best proven intervention(s), except in the following circumstances:

Where no proven intervention exists, the use of placebo, or no intervention, is acceptable; or

Where for compelling and scientifically sound methodological reasons the use of any intervention less effective than the best proven one, the use of placebo, or no intervention is necessary to determine the efficacy or safety of an intervention

and the patients who receive any intervention less effective than the best proven one, placebo, or no intervention will not be subject to additional risks of serious or irreversible harm as a result of not receiving the best proven intervention.

Extreme care must be taken to avoid abuse of this option.

Post-Trial Provisions

34. In advance of a clinical trial, sponsors, researchers and host country governments should make provisions for post-trial access for all participants who still need an intervention identified as beneficial in the trial. This information must also be disclosed to participants during the informed consent process.

Research Registration and Publication and Dissemination of Results

35. Every research study involving human subjects must be registered in a publicly accessible database before recruitment of the first subject.

36. Researchers, authors, sponsors, editors and publishers all have ethical obligations with regard to the publication and dissemination of the results of research. Researchers have a duty to make publicly available the results of their research on human subjects and are accountable for the completeness and accuracy of their reports. All parties should adhere to accepted guidelines for ethical reporting. Negative and inconclusive as well as positive results must be published or otherwise made publicly available. Sources of funding, institutional affiliations and conflicts of interest must be declared in the publication. Reports of research not in accordance with the principles of this Declaration should not be accepted for publication.

Unproven Interventions in Clinical Practice

37. In the treatment of an individual patient, where proven interventions do not exist or other known interventions have been ineffective, the physician, after seeking expert advice, with informed consent from the patient or a legally authorised representative, may use an unproven intervention if in the physician’s judgement it offers hope of saving life, re-establishing health or alleviating suffering. This intervention should subsequently be made the object of research, designed to evaluate its safety and efficacy. In all cases, new information must be recorded and, where appropriate, made publicly available.



Principles of Transparency

The journal follows the guidelines specified by World Association of Medical Editors (WAME): https://wame.org/policies

1. Website: A journal’s website, including the text that it contains, shall demonstrate that care has been taken to ensure high ethical and professional standards. It must not contain information that might mislead readers or authors, including any attempt to mimic another journal/publisher’s site.

An ‘Aims & Scope’ statement should be included on the website and the readership clearly defined. There should be a statement on what a journal will consider for publication including authorship criteria (e.g., not considering multiple submissions, redundant publications) to be included. ISSNs should be clearly displayed (separate for print and electronic).

2. Name of journal: The Journal name shall be unique and not be one that is easily confused with another journal or that might mislead potential authors and readers about the Journal’s origin or association with other journals.

3. Peer review process: Journal content must be clearly marked as whether peer reviewed or not. Peer review is defined as obtaining advice on individual manuscripts from reviewers expert in the field who are not part of the journal’s editorial staff. This process, as well as any policies related to the journal’s peer review procedures, shall be clearly described on the journal website, including the method of peer review used. Journal websites should not guarantee manuscript acceptance or very short peer review times.

4. Ownership and management: Information about the ownership and/or management of a journal shall be clearly indicated on the journal’s website. Publishers shall not use organizational or journal names that would mislead potential authors and editors about the nature of the journal’s owner.

5. Governing body: Journals shall have editorial boards or other governing bodies whose members are recognized experts in the subject areas included within the journal’s scope. The full names and affiliations of the journal’s editorial board or other governing body shall be provided on the journal’s website.

6. Editorial team/contact information: Journals shall provide the full names and affiliations of the journal’s editors on the journal website as well as contact information for the editorial office, including a full address.

7. Copyright and Licensing: The policy for copyright shall be clearly stated in the author guidelines and the copyright holder named on all published articles. Likewise, licensing information shall be clearly described in guidelines on the website, and licensing terms shall be indicated on all published articles, both HTML and PDFs. If authors are allowed to publish under a Creative Commons license then any specific license requirements shall be noted. Any policies on posting of final accepted versions or published articles on third party repositories shall be clearly stated.

8. Author fees: Any fees or charges that are required for manuscript processing and/or publishing materials in the journal shall be clearly stated in a place that is easy for potential authors to find prior to submitting their manuscripts for review or explained to authors before they begin preparing their manuscript for submission. If no such fees are charged that should also be clearly stated.

9. Process for identification of and dealing with allegations of research misconduct: Publishers and editors shall take reasonable steps to identify and prevent the publication of papers where research misconduct has occurred, including plagiarism, citation manipulation, and data falsification/fabrication, among others. In no case shall a journal or its editors encourage such misconduct, or knowingly allow such misconduct to take place. In the event that a journal’s publisher or editors are made aware of any allegation of research misconduct relating to a published article in their journal, the publisher or editor shall follow COPE’s guidelines (or equivalent) in dealing with allegations.

10. Publication Ethics: A journal shall also have policies on publishing ethics. These should be clearly visible on its website, and should refer to: i) Journal policies on authorship and contributorship; ii) How the journal will handle complaints and appeals; iii) Journal policies on conflicts of interest / competing interests; iv) Journal policies on data sharing and reproducibility; v) Journal’s policy on ethical oversight; vi) Journal’s policy on intellectual property; and vii) Journal’s options for post-publication discussions and corrections.

11. Publishing schedule: The periodicity at which a journal publishes shall be clearly indicated.

12. Access: The way(s) in which the journal and individual articles are available to readers and whether there are associated subscription or pay per view fees shall be stated.

13. Archiving: A journal’s plan for electronic backup and preservation of access to the journal content (for example, access to main articles via CLOCKSS or PubMedCentral) in the event a journal is no longer published shall be clearly indicated.

14. Revenue sources: Business models or revenue sources (e.g., author fees, subscriptions, advertising, reprints, institutional support, and organizational support) shall be clearly stated or otherwise evident on the journal’s website. Publishing fees or waiver status should not influence editorial decision making.

15. Advertising: Journals shall state their advertising policy if relevant, including what types of adverts will be considered, who makes decisions regarding accepting adverts and whether they are linked to content or reader behavior (online only) or are displayed at random. Advertisements should not be related in any way to editorial decision making and shall be kept separate from the published content.

16. Direct marketing: Any direct marketing activities, including solicitation of manuscripts that are conducted on behalf of the journal, shall be appropriate, well targeted, and unobtrusive. Information provided about the publisher or journal is expected to be truthful and not misleading for readers or authors.